Plants and animals are unaware of Political boundaries conservation must be based on worldwide strategies. In 1980 the World Conservation Strategy was launched by IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources), WWF (World Wildlife Fund) and UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). It said that conservation of three factors was needed: 1. Life support cycles, water, soil and air; 2. Species of plants and animals; 3. Genetic diversity. This document became the basis of conservation policies in over 50 countries.
In 1991 IUCN, WWF and UNEP launched caring for the Earth, an updated policy document setting targets and suggesting some methods of approach. IN 1992 the Earth Summit in Rio was attended by many heads of governments, who pledged to implement much of caring for the Earth, its strategies were largely embodied in the Biodiversity Convention ( Although it was not signed by USA). Many of those good intentions have since been watered down or bogged down, but the idea survives and a number are gradually being implemented with a world system of biosphere reserves and heritage sites.