Friday, October 21, 2011

Mosses, Ferns and Conifers

Mosses and the closely related liverworts carry spores in stalked capsules. The capsules form only after the union of male and female sex cells. As in ferns the cells need moist condition so mosses flourish mainly in damp environment.

Ferns generally carry their spores in little capsules under the leaves. The related horsetails carry their in fleshy cones at the tips of the stems. Although the reproductive process needs water, mature ferns can survive in dry places.


Conifers bear sees on the scales of their cones. The cones are small and soft at first, but swell and become woody after pollination. When the seeds are ripe the cones either open slightly or fall to pieces to release them. Conifers are the best known of the cone bearing plants, known as gymnosperms.


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