The different regional climates on Earth are governed by atmospheric circulation and to some extent by oceans. Both are driven by heat from the Sun. the cells of atmospheric circulation reach several kilometers up into the troposphere. The deepest, called the Hadley cell, rises at the equator ad transports warm air north and south, returning cool warm air both north and south, returning cool air nearer the surface. The circulation continues across mid latitudes in the lower Ferrel cell. Above that, 5-10 Km high, and not affected by friction from the land’s surface, are jet streams. They form a series of constantly shifting waves around regions of low and high pressure.
The Ferrel cell underneath thus becomes complicated by the Eddies. In a polar cell cold air sinks, flows out and is replaced by warmer air from above. Tropical and polar air meets at the polar front. Where warm air rises above cooler air to form a front, moisture in it condenses to form clouds and heavy rain and low pressure system that often sweeps in over Britain from the Atlantic. The position of the jet stream is important in determining whether the rain will fall on Iceland or London.